Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus - often referred to simply as diabetes - is a condition in which the body either does not produce any insulin (Type 1) or not enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas to overcome the underlying insulin resistance of the cells in the body (Type 2). Insulin enables glucose (sugar) to enter the cells in order to be stored as glycogen or oxidized for energy. These defects cause glucose to accumulate in the blood, inevitably leading to serious complications. The positive effects of moderate wine and other alcoholic beverage consumption are only relevant for individuals with type-2 diabetes.

 

Type 2 Diabetes

 

The underlying defect is insulin resistance due to obesity and lack of exercise. Insulin resistance means that the cells do not respond to the insulin signal. In return, the pancreas tries to overcome this resistance by increasing the insulin output which enables the glucose to enter the cells. Once the beta-cells cannot compensate the high demand of insulin for proper function, the glucose will remain in the blood leading to an increased blood sugar level. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are type 2.

 

In 2010, the International Diabetes Federation estimated the global prevalence of diabetes mellitus at 6.6% in adults. Type-2 diabetes is now one of the most common non-communicable diseases in the world and a major cause of premature illness and death in most countries. To prevent diabetic complications and premature death, patients are recommended to adopt a healthy lifestyle.  

 

Evidence from randomized-controlled intervention studies as well as from population studies have demonstrated that light to moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages will improve insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant people. Accordingly, large prospective studies have shown a reduced risk for developing the metabolic syndrome (MS, name for a group of risk factors that raise the risk for heart disease, stroke and diabetes. A metabolic syndrome exists when at least 3 of the following risk factors are present: overweight, high triglyceride level, elevated plasma glucose level,  low HDL cholesterol level and high blood pressure) . A moderate intake of  wine as well as other alcoholic beverages exerts a beneficial effect on MS. In addition, large population studies suggest that light to moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with a lower diabetic risk than abstaining or heavy drinking, independently of the type of alcoholic beverage consumed. Meta-analyses reported a J-shaped relationship for men and women with a reduced risk for a moderate intake of alcoholic beverages and an increased risk for more than 50-60 g/d. With regards to wine and diabetes, most studies found  beneficial effects. But not only the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is decreased with moderate drinking; it may also reduce CHD and CVD mortality in diabetics as well as potential cardiac complications relating to diabetes. This is especially important considering that coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death among individuals with type-2 diabetes, who also have a 4-fold increased risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Research indicates that this risk decreases considerably when they consume wine moderately with meals.

 

Considering the world-wide epidemic of type 2 diabetes which is expected to rise even further and is associated with major health care costs, preventing diabetes is a major public health issue. It seems that drinking wine in moderation could  help reduce type 2 diabetes and thereby contribute to public health.


The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND: Evidence is lacking on the effects of binge alcohol consumption on metabolic syndrome in the rural South African population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between binge drinking and components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) amongst Ellisras rural young adults aged 21 to 31 years who are part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study. METHODS: Logistic regression analysis was applied to a total of 624 participants (306 males and 318 females) aged 21 to 31 years who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study (ELS). The model was adjusted for covariates, including smoking, age, and gender. Binge alcohol consumption was assessed using a standardised questionnaire that was validated for the Ellisras rural community. A standardised method of…
The search for a quality diet has grown over the past decade. Diet is considered one of the pillars for the prevention and progression of several diseases, among them: diabetes. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an epidemic of western countries that increases the vulnerability of other diseases, such as cardiovascular and cancer. T2D is associated with lifestyle and diet. The traditional Mediterranean diet has proven its benefits over several cardiovascular risk factors, and specifically on diabetes. This review compiles recent published evidence on the effects of the Mediterranean diet on the incidence and progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its relation with several other cardiovascular healthy diets. We will also focus on how the Mediterranean diet could play a…
Dietary patterns influence various cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, lipoprotein concentrations, and function, blood pressure, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health. The Mediterranean diet can be described as a dietary pattern characterized by the high consumption of plant-based foods, olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate consumption of fish, dairy products and poultry, low consumption of red and processed meat, and low-to-moderate consumption of wine with meals. The American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association recommend Mediterranean diet for improving glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies show that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a 20-23 % reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while…
INTRODUCTION: Both fatty liver disease (FLD) and alcohol consumption have been reported to affect incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of FLD and alcohol consumption on incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this historical cohort study involving 9948 men, we investigated the influence of the presence of FLD and the grades of alcohol consumption on incident type 2 diabetes using Cox proportional hazards models. We categorized the participants into the following four groups: none or minimal alcohol consumption, 280 g/week. FLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. RESULTS: During the median 6.0-year follow-up, 568 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Heavy alcohol consumers with FLD showed a higher risk…
Background Heavy alcohol consumption has a well-established association with hypertension. However, doubt persists whether moderate alcohol consumption has a similar link. This relationship is not well-studied in patients with diabetes mellitus. We aimed to describe the association of alcohol consumption with prevalent hypertension in participants in the ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) trial. Methods and Results Alcohol consumption was categorized as none, light (1-7 drinks/week), moderate (8-14 drinks/week), and heavy (>/=15 drinks/week). Blood pressure was categorized using American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines as normal, elevated blood pressure, stage 1 hypertension, and stage 2 hypertension. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association between alcohol consumption and prevalent hypertension. A total of 10 200 eligible…
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