Liver Disease

Liver disease is any condition that causes liver inflammation or tissue damage and affects liver function. The liver is the largest organ in the body and performs a number of vital functions such as converting nutrients derived from food into essential blood components, storing vitamins and minerals, regulating blood clotting, producing  proteins, enzymes, maintaining hormone balances, and metabolizing and detoxifying substances that would otherwise be harmful to the body. The liver also produces bile, a liquid that helps with digestion.

A moderate amount of alcohol is broken down by the liver without any damage. However, when drinking excessively, the liver can transform alcohol into fat and accumulate these lipids and become injured or seriously damaged. Liver injury can be determined by histology, abdominal ultrasonography and by testing the blood concentration of certain enzymes, such as gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), and alanine amino-transferase (ALT).

On the other hand, some studies suggest that moderate and regular consumption of alcoholic beverages may play a protective role against fatty liver disease, the exact mechanisms involved have not yet been clearly established.

The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metabolic risk factors (MetRs) are associated with hepatic and cardiac outcomes in patients with fatty liver disease (FLD). We evaluated whether MetRs have different effects on alcoholic FLD (AFLD) and non-alcoholic FLD (NAFLD). METHODS: We used a standardised common data model to analyse data from seven university hospital databases between 2006 and 2015. MetRs included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and obesity. Follow-up data were analysed for the incidence of hepatic outcomes, cardiac outcomes, and death in patients with AFLD or NAFLD and based on MetRs within AFLD and NAFLD. RESULTS: Out of 3,069 and 17,067 patients with AFLD and NAFLD, respectively, 2,323 (75.7%) and 13,121 (76.9%) had one or more MetR, respectively. Patients with AFLD were at…
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), once considered a benign condition, has been associated with several cardiometabolic complications over the past two decades. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD is as high as 30%. NAFLD requires the absence of a "significant alcohol intake." Conflicting reports have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption may be protective; therefore, the diagnosis of NAFLD previously relied on negative criteria. However, there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption globally. Apart from the rise in alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD), alcohol, a major toxin, is associated with an increased risk of several cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol misuse is a significant contributor to disability-adjusted life years. Recently, the term metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed instead…
Alcohol use and metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent in the population and frequently co-exist. Both are implicated in a large range of health problems, including chronic liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related outcomes (i.e. decompensation or liver transplantation). Studies have yielded mixed results regarding the effects of mild-moderate alcohol consumption on the risk of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease, possibly due to methodological differences. The few available prospective studies have indicated that mild-moderate alcohol use is associated with an increase in liver-related outcomes. This conclusion was substantiated by systems biology analyses suggesting that alcohol and metabolic syndrome may play a similar role in fatty liver disease, potentiating an already existing dysregulation of common vital homeostatic pathways. Alcohol and metabolic…
Heavy alcohol consumption is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Globally, alcohol per-capita consumption rose from 5.5 litres in 2005 to 6.4 litres in 2016 and is projected to increase further to 7.6 litres in 2030. In 2019, an estimated 25% of global cirrhosis deaths were associated with alcohol. The global estimated age-standardized death rate (ASDR) of alcohol-associated cirrhosis was 4.5 per 100,000 population, with the highest and lowest ASDR in Africa and the Western Pacific, respectively. The annual incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with alcohol-associated cirrhosis ranged from 0.9% to 5.6%. Alcohol was associated with approximately one-fifth of global HCC-related deaths in 2019. Between 2012 and 2017, the global estimated ASDR for alcohol-associated cirrhosis declined, but…
BACKGROUND: Although alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is a global health threat, there are no specific effective treatments for it. Thus, efforts at preventing ALD are important and could be enhanced by using strategies based on validated risk and protective factors for the disease. METHODS: The literature on factors influencing the risk for ALD was systematically searched from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library databases from inception to June 2022. Factors suitable for quantitative analysis were submitted to meta-analysis using fixed-effects and random-effects models to calculate each factor's risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Ten cohort studies (covering 1,005,339 subjects) that reported a clear causal relationship were included in the analysis, involving 11 potential risk factors (sex, race,…
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